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Geoffrey A. Manne headshot

President and Founder

Geoffrey A. Manne is president and founder of the International Center for Law and Economics (ICLE), a nonprofit, nonpartisan research center based in Portland, Oregon. He is also a distinguished fellow at Northwestern University’s Center on Law, Business, and Economics. Previously he taught at Lewis & Clark Law School. Prior to teaching, Manne practiced antitrust law at Latham & Watkins, clerked for Hon. Morris S. Arnold on the 8th Circuit Court of Appeals, and worked as a research assistant for Judge Richard Posner. He was also once (very briefly) employed by the FTC. Manne holds AB & JD degrees from the University of Chicago.

Julian Morris headshot

Senior Scholar

Before joining ICLE, Julian was Vice President of Research at Reason Foundation. Prior to that he was Executive Director of International Policy Network, a London-based think tank which he co-founded. Before that, he ran the environment and technology program at the Institute of Economic Affairs. He has also been a visiting professor in the Department of International Studies at the University of Buckingham (UK).

Intellectual Property

Copyright Fair Use International Trade

ICLE White Paper

Dangerous Exception: The Detrimental Effects of Including Fair Use Copyright Exceptions in Free Trade Agreements


In the context of ongoing negotiations of the Trans Pacific Partnership (TPP) and deliberations over trade promotion authority (TPA), some organizations have been advocating for the inclusion of fair use exceptions and limitations to copyright. This brief looks at the evidence for and against mandating the adoption of a U.S.-style fair use exception and, in particular, at the implications of requiring countries to adopt such an exception in free trade agreements. It begins with a brief exploration of the relationship between copyright, creativity and economic development. It then considers the economics of copyright and fair use, applying these to a networked global marketplace. The brief concludes with an assessment of current debates around fair use exceptions in free trade agreements and TPA.