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Samuel Bowman headshot

Founding Editor at Works in Progress

Sam Bowman is a founding editor of Works in Progress. Previously, he was director of competition policy at the ICLE, principal at Fingleton, and executive director of the Adam Smith Institute.

Geoffrey A. Manne headshot

President and Founder

Geoffrey A. Manne is president and founder of the International Center for Law and Economics (ICLE), a nonprofit, nonpartisan research center based in Portland, Oregon. He is also a distinguished fellow at Northwestern University’s Center on Law, Business, and Economics. Previously he taught at Lewis & Clark Law School. Prior to teaching, Manne practiced antitrust law at Latham & Watkins, clerked for Hon. Morris S. Arnold on the 8th Circuit Court of Appeals, and worked as a research assistant for Judge Richard Posner. He was also once (very briefly) employed by the FTC. Manne holds AB & JD degrees from the University of Chicago.


Antitrust Antitrust Populism Market Definition


Competition in Digital Platform Markets: A Question of Definitions

Competition is strong in digital markets, but traditional antitrust tools may miss competitive nuances in these markets.


Critics argue that competition is weak in digital platform markets because each market tends to be dominated by a single player: Google in Search, Amazon in online retail, and so on.


Digital platforms overlap significantly and are constantly expanding into each other’s markets, and new entrants are a constant threat. Retrospective market definition, the tool that antitrust agencies use to determine the boundaries of competition, will frequently miss changes in the nature of the products and markets under review, and as a result miss much of the competition taking place. Features of that competition are discussed below.

Read the full tl;dr explainer here.