Economic Freedom in the Period of Invisible Punishment: Occupational and Business Licensing Barriers That Restrict Access to Work for Those with Criminal Records


In the United States, once people have been convicted of a crime—or, in many cases, even arrested for a crime—those people are marked for life in a way that allows states to deny them the right to earn a living in the profession of their choosing. In this short brief, we discuss the US incarceration rate, the collateral consequences to economic freedom as a result of conviction and arrest, and potential avenues for reform.